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Acid Proof:

The term "acid proof" relates to the use of Caramel Color in carbonated beverages. The term means the Caramel Color is stable in a beverage concentrate where it is combined with phosphoric acid and must remain stable for several months. Many of the Caramel Colors manufactured by Sethness-Roquette are "acid proof", even those that may not be specifically formulated for soft drinks.


Alcohol Test:

Allows determining the alcohol concentration at which the Caramel Color remains stable. This test is important to the distilleries and alcoholic beverage manufacturers.


Ash Content:

The determination of the ash content of Caramel defines that portion of the product present as non-carbonizable materials usually consisting of metallic salts. The ash content of Caramel assists in identifying the Caramel's raw materials and processing. Incineration of a test portion, previously evaporated, at a temperature of 6000℃ until the carbonic residue has completely disappeared.



The baumé of Caramel Color is a method of measuring specific gravity which in turn reflects the kg/l of the product. The specific gravity of liquid Caramel Colors ranges from 1.25-1.38, corresponding to a range of about 1.244-1.376 kg/l. The corresponding dry substance content of the liquid Caramel Color varies from about 50-70%.


Beer test:

This test was developed to ensure the compatibility of certain Caramel Colors with beer. There are many grain proteins left in the final beer product, and ionic interactions with the Caramel Colors can lead to precipitation and or haze generation. Beer test results depend on the type of beer used for the test.



Burnt sugar, used to color and flavour food.



The European Brewing Convention (EBC) colour method was developed from a visual comparison of a sample material to that of a standard. At the present time, there is no single acceptable method for determining this color with a spectrophotometer. There are at least four different wavelengths used to determine EBC values. This is similar to Caramel Color methods which require wavelengths of 560 nm for Tinctorial Power, K0.56, require a 610 nm wavelength for Color Intensity and require a total dry solids basis for FCC color.



Genetically Modified Organisms. We use carbohydrates originating exclusively from conventional crops. Consequently our Caramel Colors are GMO free.


Haze and Gel Tests:

Demonstrate color stability in concentrated phosphoric acid solutions. These tests are used to determine the acid resistance of the Caramel to precipitation and polymerization. This test was developed mainly for the soft drink industry.


Hue Index:

Color tone of the Caramel Color. The Hue index is the measure of the colour hue or red characteristics of the Caramel Color. It is a function of the absorbance at 510 and 610 nm. Generally, the higher the Tinctorial Power, K0.56, the lower the Hue Index and the lower the red tones.


Insoluble content:

The insoluble content of Caramel Color is an indication of its processing, filtered or unfiltered, and its quality if it is a filtered product.  The insoluble content may be of concern in products where clarity and/or sediment is an important factor.


Ionic Charge:

Caramel Color molecules carry ionic (electrochemical) charges which may be either positive or negative - neutral depending upon the processing conditions of a particular product. Most of the Caramel Color used today is negatively charged. However, there are specific applications where positively charged Caramel Color is required, particularly in applications where it comes in contact with proteins as in beer and meat products. Often color precipitation, flocculation, or migration problems can be eliminated with the use of an appropriate Caramel Color.


Isoelectric Point:

The net ionic charge can be changed with the addition of acid, or base, to a point where the net charge is neutral. The pH at this point is called the Isoelectric, or isoionic point. At the Isoelectric pH, a mixture of dilute caramel and gelatin, a soluble polypeptide, reacts to form a haze or tiny insoluble particles. The haze can be measured by absorbance using a spectrophotometer, or observed visually.
This method depends on the interaction of a dilute solution of gelatin and caramel around the Isoelectric Point. However, the turbidity is measured by absorbance with a spectrophotometer at 640 nm. The pH where the absorbance is the maximum is defined as the Isoelectric Point.


Neutral Tannin Test:

This test determines the compatibility of Caramel Color molecules with the negatively charged tannin radicals in solution. It relates to the compatibility of the Caramel Color with the naturally occurring tannins in various flavour extracts. This test can also be used to determine whether a Caramel Color is negative or positive in colloidal charge. Positive Caramel Colors precipitate in this test. It is possible that some negative Caramel Colors will also fail this test.



Negative log of the hydrogen ion concentration.



Accelerated stability test. The Caramel Color is sealed in an airtight ampoule and heated at 100℃. The time in hours is measured until the material no longer flows. One hour represents approximately one month under normal storage conditions. The real importance of this test is to ensure the material being tested is the same as the previous lots.


Tinctorial Power, K0.56:

Color strength of Caramel Color. This is the absorbance of a 0.1% weight/volume solution measured through a 1 cm light path at a wavelength of 560 nanometers (nm) using a high quality spectrophotometer. The higher the value of the absorbance, the tinctorial power, K0.56, the darker the Caramel Color. A Caramel Color with a TP of 0,400 is twice as strong as a Caramel Color of 0,200, and you would only use half as much material to generate the same final color.


Titratable Acidity:

Caramel Color is manufactured by heating food grade carbohydrate materials in combination with food grade acids, alkalies and/or salts. During the process organic acids are produced as the result of the degradation of the carbohydrate components. The acidity of the Caramel Color is an estimate of the organic acid content resulting from the carbohydrate degradation and any residual acids from the process formula. Titratable Acidity is a measure of the amount of base required to adjust the pH of a Caramel Color to a defined pH value and is calculated as hydrochloric acid or citric acid.



Viscosity is the measure of the internal friction of a liquid to resist flow resulting from the combined effects of cohesion and adhesion.  The viscosity of Caramel Color is an important physical characteristic indicative of the manufacturing process as well as the type and age of the product. Viscosity of Caramel Color can be also greatly affected by temperature.
This method employs a Brookfield Viscometer. This is of the rotational variety. It measures the torque required to rotate an immersed cylindrical spindle in a fluid.






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